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Comparison operators

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Controle de fluxo
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Flow control
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Functions
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Exceptions
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Tipos
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Types
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decltype specifier (C++11)
Especificadores
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cv especificadores
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Initialization
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Expressions
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representações alternativas
Utilitários
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Utilities
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Tipos
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Types
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typedef declaration
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Conversões
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Casts
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conversões implícitas
const_cast conversion
static_cast conversion
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Elenco C-estilo e funcional
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Memory allocation
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Classes
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Classe propriedades específicas de função
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Class-specific function properties
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Funções membro especiais
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Special member functions
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Modelos
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Templates
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modelo de classe
modelo de função
especialização de modelo
pacotes de parâmetros (C++11)
Diversos
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Miscellaneous
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Assembly embutido
 
Compara os argumentos.
Original:
Compares the arguments.
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Operator name Syntax Over​load​able Prototype examples (for class T)
Inside class definition Outside class definition
equal to a == b Yes bool T::operator ==(const T2 &b) const; bool operator ==(const T &a, const T2 &b);
not equal to a != b Yes bool T::operator !=(const T2 &b) const; bool operator !=(const T &a, const T2 &b);
less than a < b Yes bool T::operator <(const T2 &b) const; bool operator <(const T &a, const T2 &b);
greater than a > b Yes bool T::operator >(const T2 &b) const; bool operator >(const T &a, const T2 &b);
less than or equal to a <= b Yes bool T::operator <=(const T2 &b) const; bool operator <=(const T &a, const T2 &b);
greater than or equal to a >= b Yes bool T::operator >=(const T2 &b) const; bool operator >=(const T &a, const T2 &b);
'Notas'
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Notes
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  • Todos os operadores internos bool de retorno, e a maioria das definidas pelo utilizador sobrecargas também retornar bool de modo a que os operadores definidos pelo utilizador podem ser usados ​​da mesma maneira como o ins embutido. No entanto, numa definida pelo utilizador sobrecarga de operador, de qualquer tipo pode ser utilizado como tipo de retorno (incluindo void).
    Original:
    All built-in operators return bool, and most user-defined overloads also return bool so that the user-defined operators can be used in the same manner as the built-ins. However, in a user-defined operator overload, any type can be used as return type (including void).
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  • T2 pode ser de qualquer tipo, incluindo T
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    T2 can be any type including T
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Índice

[editar] Explicação

Retorna o resultado booleano de comparação dos valores dos argumentos, que não são modificados.
Original:
Returns the boolean result of comparison of the values of the arguments, which are not modified.
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[editar] Comparação operadores aritméticos

Para cada par de tipos aritméticos promovidas L e R, incluindo os tipos de enumeração, as assinaturas de função seguintes participar na resolução de sobrecarga:
Original:
For every pair of promoted arithmetic types L and R, including enumeration types, the following function signatures participate in overload resolution:
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bool operator<(L, R);
bool operator>(L, R);
bool operator<=(L, R);
bool operator>=(L, R);
bool operator==(L, R);
bool operator!=(L, R);
Se os operandos tem aritmética ou tipo de enumeração (escopo ou sem escopo),' conversões aritméticas usuais são realizadas seguindo as regras para operadores aritméticos. Os valores são comparados, após conversão:
Original:
If the operands has arithmetic or enumeration type (scoped or unscoped), usual arithmetic conversions are performed following the rules for operadores aritméticos. The values are compared after conversions:
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[editar] Exemplo

#include <iostream>
int main()
{
    std::cout << std::boolalpha;
    int n = -1;
 
    int n2 = 1;
    std::cout << " -1 == 1? " << (n == n2) << '\n'
              << "Comparing two signed values:\n"
              << " -1  < 1? " << (n < n2) << '\n'
              << " -1  > 1? " << (n > n2) << '\n';
 
    unsigned int u = 1;
    std::cout << "Comparing signed and unsigned:\n"
              << " -1  < 1? " << (n < u) << '\n'
              << " -1  > 1? " << (n > u) << '\n';
 
    unsigned char uc = 1;
    std::cout << "Comparing signed and smaller unsigned:\n"
              << " -1  < 1? " << (n < uc) << '\n'
              << " -1  > 1? " << (n > uc) << '\n';
}

Output:

-1 == 1? false
Comparing two signed values:
 -1  < 1? true
 -1  > 1? false
Comparing signed and unsigned:
 -1  < 1? false
 -1  > 1? true
Comparing signed and smaller unsigned:
 -1  < 1? true
 -1  > 1? false

[editar] Comparação operadores ponteiro

Para cada tipo de P que é ou ponteiro para objeto ou ponteiro para função ou std::nullptr_t, e para cada MP tipo que é um ponteiro para o objeto membro ou ponteiro para função de membro, as assinaturas de função seguintes participar na resolução de sobrecarga:
Original:
For every type P which is either pointer to object or pointer to function or std::nullptr_t, and for every type MP that is a pointer to member object or pointer to member function, the following function signatures participate in overload resolution:
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bool operator<(P, P);
bool operator>(P, P);
bool operator<=(P, P);
bool operator>=(P, P);
bool operator==(P, P);
bool operator!=(P, P);
bool operator==(MP, MP);
bool operator!=(MP, MP);
Os operadores de comparação pode ser usado para comparar dois ponteiros (ponteiros ou-a-membros, por operator== e operator!= apenas), ou um ponteiro e um ponteiro nulo constante, ou duas constantes de ponteiro nulo (mas apenas desde que pelo menos um deles é std::nullptr_t: comparação de NULL NULL e segue regras de comparação aritmética). Conversões de ponteiro (ponteiro para conversões membros se os argumentos são ponteiros para os membros) e conversões de qualificação são aplicados a ambos os operandos para obter o' tipo composto ponteiro, como segue
Original:
Comparison operators can be used to compare two pointers (or pointers-to-members, for operator== and operator!= only), or a pointer and a null pointer constant, or two null pointer constants (but only as long as at least one of them is std::nullptr_t: comparison of NULL and NULL follows arithmetic comparison rules). Conversões de ponteiro (pointer to member conversions if the arguments are pointers to members) and conversões de qualificação are applied to both operands to obtain the composite pointer type, as follows
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1)
Se ambos os operandos são constantes ponteiro nulo, o tipo de ponteiro é composto std::nullptr_t
Original:
If both operands are null pointer constants, the composite pointer type is std::nullptr_t
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2)
Se um operando uma constante de ponteiro nulo e o outro é um ponteiro, o tipo de composição é exactamente o tipo de ponteiro
Original:
If one operand a null pointer constant and the other is a pointer, the composite type is exactly the pointer type
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3)
Se ambos os operandos são ponteiros para o mesmo tipo, com diferentes cv-qualificação, o compósito é ponteiro para o mesmo tipo com cv-qualificação, que é uma união dos-CV qualificações dos argumentos.
Original:
If both operands are pointers to the same type, with different cv-qualification, the composite is pointer to the same type with cv-qualification that is a union of the cv-qualifications of the arguments.
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Note-se que isto implica que qualquer indicador pode ser comparado com void*.
Original:
Note that this implies that any pointer can be compared with void*.
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Os resultados de comparação entre dois ponteiros (após conversão) são determinados como se segue:
Original:
Results of comparing two pointers (after conversions) are determined as follows:
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1)
Se os ponteiros de p e q
Original:
If the pointers p and q
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a)
apontar para o mesmo objeto ou função
Original:
point to the same object or function
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b)
ou um ponto para além da extremidade da mesma matriz
Original:
or point one past the end of the same array
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c)
ou são os dois ponteiros nulos
Original:
or are both null pointers
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em seguida, os ponteiros comparar igual: p==q, p<=q e p>=q retorno true, enquanto p!=q, p<q e p>q retorno false,
Original:
then the pointers compare equal: p==q, p<=q, and p>=q return true, while p!=q, p<q, and p>q return false,
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2)
Se um dos operandos é um ponteiro nulo eo outro não é, eles comparam desigual: p==q retornos true, p!=q retornos false, o comportamento de outros operadores é indeterminado.
Original:
If one of the operands is a null pointer and the other is not, they compare unequal: p==q returns true, p!=q returns false, the behavior of other operators is unspecified.
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3)
Se os ponteiros de p e q ponto aos membros da mesma matriz e a[i] a[j] ou um após o fim da matriz, que resulta da comparação entre os ponteiros é o mesmo que o resultado da comparação dos índices: i<j==true se então {{{1}}}.
Original:
If the pointers p and q point to members of the same array a[i] and a[j] or one past the end of the array, they results of comparing the pointers is the same as the result of comparing the indexes: if i<j==true then {{{1}}}.
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4)
Se os ponteiros p e q ponto para membros não-estáticos de dados dentro de uma mesma classe ou subobjetos base diferentes dentro da mesma classe derivada, ou aos seus membros ou subobjetos, recursivamente, e se os membros apontados / subobjetos ter o controle de acesso à mesma (por exemplo, tanto public:), e da classe não é uma união, em seguida, o ponteiro para o subobjeto depois declarou / membro compara maior do que o ponteiro para o subobjeto anteriormente declarados / membro. Em outras palavras, os membros da classe em cada um dos três modos de acesso são posicionados na memória, a fim de declaração.
Original:
If the pointers p and q point to non-static data members within the same class or different base subobjects within the same derived class, or to their members or subobjects, recursively, and if the pointed-to members/subobjects have the same access control (e.g. both public:), and the class is not a union, then the pointer to the later declared subobject/member compares greater than the pointer to the earlier declared subobject/member. In other words, class members in each of the three access modes are positioned in memory in order of declaration.
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6)
Se os ponteiros de p e q ponto aos membros da mesma union, comparam igual (tipicamente uma conversão explícita para void* é necessária para um dos operandos)
Original:
If the pointers p and q point to members of the same union, they compare equal (typically an explicit conversion to void* is required for one of the operands)
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7)
Se um dos ponteiros é um ponteiro para void e tanto do ponto ponteiros para o mesmo endereço ou são ambos ponteiros nulos, eles comparam igual.
Original:
If one of the pointers is a pointer to void and both pointers point to the same address or are both null pointers, they compare equal.
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8)
Se duas constantes ponteiro nulo são comparados, eles comparam igual.
Original:
If two null pointer constants are compared, they compare equal.
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9)
Se ambos os operandos são ponteiros para membro (objeto ou função), eles comparam iguais se eles apontam tanto para o mesmo membro da classe derivada mais.
Original:
If both operands are pointers to member (object or function), they compare equal if they both point to the same member of the most derived class.
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10)
Caso contrário (se as indicações apontam para objectos em matrizes diferentes, ou com diferentes funções, ou de membros de um objecto com o controlo de acesso diferente, etc), os resultados de p<q, p>q, p<=q e p>=q não são especificadas, e retorna p!=q false.
Original:
Otherwise (if the pointers point to objects in different arrays, or to different functions, or to members of some object with different access control, etc), the results of p<q, p>q, p<=q, and p>=q are unspecified, and p!=q returns false.
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[editar] Exemplo

#include <iostream>
struct Foo  { int n1; int n2; };
union Union { int n; double d; };
int main()
{
    std::cout << std::boolalpha;
 
    char a[4] = "abc";
 
    char* p1 = &a[1];
    char* p2 = &a[2];
    std::cout << "Pointers to array elements: p1 == p2 " << (p1 == p2)
              << ", p1 < p2 "  << (p1 < p2) << '\n';
 
    Foo f;
    int* p3 = &f.n1;
    int* p4 = &f.n2;
    std::cout << "Pointers to members of a class: p3 == p4 " << (p3 == p4)
              << ", p3 < p4 "  << (p3 < p4) << '\n';
 
    Union u;
    int* p5 = &u.n;
    double* p6 = &u.d;
    std::cout << "Pointers to members of a union: p5 == (void*)p6 " << (p5 == (void*)p6)
              << ", p5 < p6 "  << (p5 < (void*)p6) << '\n';
}

Output:

Pointers to array elements: p1 == p2 false, p1 < p2 true
Pointers to members of a class: p3 == p4 false, p3 < p4 true
Pointers to members of a union: p5 == (void*)p6 true, p5 < p6 false

[editar] Notas

Porque estes grupo de operadores da esquerda para a direita, o a<b<c expressão é analisada (a<b)<c, e não a<(b<c) ou (a<b)&&(b<c).
Original:
Because these operators group left-to-right, the expression a<b<c is parsed (a<b)<c, and not a<(b<c) or (a<b)&&(b<c).
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Um requisito comum para definido pelo usuário operator< é ordenação fraca rigorosa. Em particular, isso é exigido pelos algoritmos padrão e recipientes que trabalham com tipos LessThanComparable: std::sort, std::max_element, std::map, etc
Original:
A common requirement for user-defined operator< is ordenação fraca rigorosa. In particular, this is required by the standard algorithms and containers that work with LessThanComparable types: std::sort, std::max_element, std::map, etc.
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Embora os resultados da comparação entre os ponteiros de origem aleatória (por exemplo, nem todos os membros de apontar para a mesma matriz) é indeterminado, muitas implementações fornecer total de estrita ordenação de ponteiros, eg se forem implementadas como endereços dentro do espaço de endereços contínuo virtual. Essas implementações que não (por exemplo, em que nem todos os bits de ponteiro são parte de um endereço de memória e tem que ser ignoradas para efeitos de comparação, ou um cálculo adicional é necessária ou ponteiro e é um número inteiro não relação de 1 para 1), proporcionam uma especialização de std::less para ponteiros que tem essa garantia. Isto torna possível a utilização de todos os ponteiros de origem aleatória como chaves em recipientes padrão associativos, tais como std::set ou std::map.
Original:
Although the results of comparing pointers of random origin (e.g. not all pointing to members of the same array) is unspecified, many implementations provide total de estrita ordenação of pointers, e.g. if they are implemented as addresses within continuous virtual address space. Those implementations that do not (e.g. where not all bits of the pointer are part of a memory address and have to be ignored for comparison, or an additional calculation is required or otherwise pointer and integer is not a 1 to 1 relationship), provide a specialization of std::less for pointers that has that guarantee. This makes it possible to use all pointers of random origin as keys in standard associative containers such as std::set or std::map.
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[editar] Biblioteca padrão

Os operadores de comparação são sobrecarregados para muitas classes da biblioteca padrão.
Original:
Comparison operators are overloaded for many classes in the standard library.
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checks whether the objects refer to the same type
(of std::type_info função pública membro) [edit]
compara dois error_codes
Original:
compares two error_codes
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(função)
compara error_conditions e error_codes
Original:
compares error_conditions and error_codes
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(função)
lexicographically compara os valores do par
Original:
lexicographically compares the values in the pair
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(modelo de função) [edit]
lexicographically compara os valores na tupla
Original:
lexicographically compares the values in the tuple
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(modelo de função) [edit]
compara o conteúdo
Original:
compares the contents
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(of std::bitset função pública membro) [edit]
compara duas instâncias alocador
Original:
compares two allocator instances
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(of std::allocator função pública membro) [edit]
compara a outra ou com unique_ptr nullptr
Original:
compares to another unique_ptr or with nullptr
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(modelo de função) [edit]
compara com outro ou com shared_ptr nullptr
Original:
compares with another shared_ptr or with nullptr
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(modelo de função) [edit]
compara com um std::function std::nullptr
Original:
compares an std::function with std::nullptr
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(modelo de função)
compara duas durações
Original:
compares two durations
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(modelo de função)
compara dois pontos de tempo
Original:
compares two time points
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(modelo de função)
compara duas instâncias scoped_allocator_adaptor
Original:
compares two scoped_allocator_adaptor instances
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(of std::scoped_allocator_adaptor função pública membro) [edit]
compara os objetos std::type_info subjacentes
Original:
compares the underlying std::type_info objects
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(of std::type_index função pública membro) [edit]
lexicographically compara duas strings
Original:
lexicographically compares two strings
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(modelo de função) [edit]
comparação de igualdade entre os objetos de localidade
Original:
equality comparison between locale objects
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(of std::locale função pública membro) [edit]
lexicographically compara os valores na array
Original:
lexicographically compares the values in the array
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(modelo de função) [edit]
lexicographically compara os valores na deque
Original:
lexicographically compares the values in the deque
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(modelo de função) [edit]
lexicographically compara os valores na forward_list
Original:
lexicographically compares the values in the forward_list
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(modelo de função) [edit]
lexicographically compara os valores na list
Original:
lexicographically compares the values in the list
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(modelo de função) [edit]
lexicographically compara os valores na vector
Original:
lexicographically compares the values in the vector
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(modelo de função) [edit]
lexicographically compara os valores na map
Original:
lexicographically compares the values in the map
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(modelo de função) [edit]
lexicographically compara os valores na multimap
Original:
lexicographically compares the values in the multimap
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(modelo de função) [edit]
lexicographically compara os valores na set
Original:
lexicographically compares the values in the set
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(modelo de função) [edit]
lexicographically compara os valores na multiset
Original:
lexicographically compares the values in the multiset
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(modelo de função) [edit]
compara os valores na unordered_map
Original:
compares the values in the unordered_map
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(modelo de função) [edit]
compara os valores na unordered_multimap
Original:
compares the values in the unordered_multimap
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(modelo de função) [edit]
compara os valores na unordered_set
Original:
compares the values in the unordered_set
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(modelo de função) [edit]
compara os valores na unordered_multiset
Original:
compares the values in the unordered_multiset
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(modelo de função) [edit]
lexicographically compara os valores na queue
Original:
lexicographically compares the values in the queue
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(modelo de função) [edit]
lexicographically compara os valores na stack
Original:
lexicographically compares the values in the stack
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(modelo de função) [edit]
compara dois reverse_iterators para a igualdade
Original:
compares two reverse_iterators for equality
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(modelo de função)
reverse_iterators ordens
Original:
orders reverse_iterators
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(modelo de função)
compara dois move_iterators
Original:
compares two move_iterators
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(modelo de função)
compara dois istream_iterators
Original:
compares two istream_iterators
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(modelo de função)
compara dois istreambuf_iterators
Original:
compares two istreambuf_iterators
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(modelo de função)
compara dois números complexos ou um complexo e um escalar
Original:
compares two complex numbers or a complex and a scalar
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(modelo de função) [edit]
compara dois valarrays ou um valarray com um valor
Original:
compares two valarrays or a valarray with a value
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(modelo de função) [edit]
compara os estados internos de dois motores de números pseudo-aleatórios
Original:
compares the internal states of two pseudo-random number engines
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(função) [edit]
compara dois objetos de distribuição
Original:
compares two distribution objects
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(função) [edit]
lexicographically compara os valores no recipiente
Original:
lexicographically compares the values in the container
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(função) [edit]
lexicographically compara os valores em dois o resultado da partida
Original:
lexicographically compares the values in the two match result
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(modelo de função)
compara dois regex_iterators
Original:
compares two regex_iterators
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(modelo de função)
compara dois regex_token_iterators
Original:
compares two regex_token_iterators
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(modelo de função)
compara dois objetos thread::id
Original:
compares two thread::id objects
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(função)
automatically generates comparison operators based on user-defined operator== and operator<
(modelo de função) [edit]

[editar] Veja também

Precedência do operador

Common operators
atribuição incrementNJdecrement aritmética lógico comparação memberNJaccess outro

a = b
a = rvalue
a += b
a -= b
a *= b
a /= b
a %= b
a &= b
a |= b
a ^= b
a <<= b
a >>= b

++a
--a
a++
a--

+a
-a
a + b
a - b
a * b
a / b
a % b
~a
a & b
a | b
a ^ b
a << b
a >> b

!a
a && b
a || b

a == b
a != b
a < b
a > b
a <= b
a >= b

a[b]
*a
&a
a->b
a.b
a->*b
a.*b

a(...)
a, b
(type) a
? :

Special operators
static_cast converte um tipo para outro
tipo compatível
Original:
static_cast converts one type to another compatible type
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dynamic_cast converte classe base virtual para class
derivados
Original:
dynamic_cast converts virtual base class to derived class
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const_cast converte tipo para tipo compatível com diferentes cv qualifiers
Original:
const_cast converts type to compatible type with different cv qualifiers
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reinterpret_cast converte tipo de type
incompatíveis
Original:
reinterpret_cast converts type to incompatible type
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new aloca memory
Original:
new allocates memory
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delete desaloca memory
Original:
delete deallocates memory
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sizeof consulta o tamanho de um type
Original:
sizeof queries the size of a type
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sizeof... consulta o tamanho de um bloco de parâmetros (a partir do C++ 11)
Original:
sizeof... queries the size of a bloco de parâmetros (a partir do C++ 11)
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typeid consulta o tipo de informação de uma type
Original:
typeid queries the type information of a type
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noexcept verifica se uma expressão pode lançar uma (a partir do C++ 11)
exceção
Original:
noexcept checks if an expression can throw an exception (a partir do C++ 11)
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alignof consultas exigências de alinhamento de um (a partir do C++ 11) tipo
Original:
alignof queries alignment requirements of a type (a partir do C++ 11)
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